The Central Peninsula is surrounded by water on three sides at the confluence of the Wəlastəkw and Marsh Creek Watersheds in the Saint John Harbour. There is a variety of land uses on the Central Peninsula, including transportation (railways, roadways and marine terminals), commercial, and residential. For example, as you move further eastward, land use shifts from commercial to residential. Zoning in the Central Peninsula includes waterfront commercial, urban centre residential, major community facility zone, park, uptown commercial zone, high rise residential, commercial corridor, general commercial, business park commercial zone, mixed commercial. There exist extensive poverty issues within the Waterloo Village and the South End (Vibrant Communities, 2008). Schools in the Central Peninsula include Saint John High, St. Malachy’s High School, Prince Charles School, and St. John the Baptist-King Edward School.
Brownfield sites are areas that are derelict, abandoned, or underutilized former commercial and industrial sites that may contain toxins and contaminants due to their past uses. Many brownfield sites exist on the peninsula due to previous industrial and manufacturing activities. These sites have the potential to be restored to productive uses but are more complex to develop because of environmental and public safety concerns. Prominent brownfield sites on the Central Peninsula include the Fundy Quay, Long Wharf, the Coast Guard Site, the former Imperial Oil Tank Farm, and the former Lantic Sugar Refinery site.
Tin Can Beach, Courtenay Bay, Marsh Creek, community gardens, and urban parks on the Peninsula (King Square, Queen Square, Loyalist Graveyard, Chown Field, and Rainbow Park) are all important natural assets. These assets and parks are valuable for recreation, culture, stormwater management, heat moderation, air purification, and carbon dioxide absorption. It is important to prioritize the conservation of these spaces as climate change adaptation continues.
Portland Place, Douglas Avenue, and the Old North End neighbourhoods comprise the North End. Crescent Valley, followed by Rockwood Park, one of the largest municipally owned parks in Canada, borders Portland Place to the north. The Mount Pleasant and Central Peninsula neighbourhoods are located to the east and Millidgeville lies northwest of the North End. The Wǝlastǝkw bounds the Old North End to the southwest. This area is largely residential with commercial strips located along Somerset Street, Lansdowne Avenue, and Main Street. Schools in the area include Centennial School, Divine Mercy Catholic School, and Harbourview High School. Industrial operations in the North End include Atlantic Towing and OCSO Construction Group (OSCO). Priority neighbourhoods in the area include Crescent Valley and the Old North End and have some of the highest incidences of poverty in the City at 61.6 % and 46.8 %, respectively (Vibrant Communities, 2008).
Newman’s Brook flows from Rockwood Park to Hazen White-St. Francis School where it is then piped underground to its outlet at Spar Cove. Spar Cove was infilled in the early 20th century to prevent flooding of nearby homes and is now known as Shamrock Park. ACAP completed the Newman’s Brook Watershed Management Plan in 2017 and recommended that Newman’s Brook is restored so that it can flow naturally through the North End. ACAP, in partnership with the landowner, has been working to restore the mouth of Spar Cove by planting trees along the shoreline and by creating a barrier against vehicle access to curb illegal dumping. Spar cove is commonly used as a lookout for the Wǝlastǝkw. These natural assets along with the urban parks/forests (Shamrock Park, Victoria Square, Robertson Square, St. Peters Park, and Riverview Memorial Park), and three community gardens in the North End should be prioritized as climate change adaptation continues as they are valuable for recreation, culture, stormwater management, heat moderation, air purification, and carbon dioxide absorption.
Lower West Side
The Lower-West side is largely a residential area made up of single detached homes and mid-rise residential buildings, with a few small areas occupied by convenience stores, restaurants, daycare facilities, transportation (Port and railway), and parks. Bay Ferries operates a passenger ferry vessel from the Lower-West Side. According to the 2006 census, the poverty rate for the Lower-West Side is 31.5 % (Vibrant Communities, 2008).
This neighbourhood is also home to Port Saint John’s main facilities and shipping as well as some industrial properties and railyards. The bulk of the Port’s industrial and shipping operations takes place from the West-Side Docks, at a scrap metal facility (American Iron and Metal Recycling), the Crosby Molasses Tank Farm, and fish oil storage tanks. Pier 13/14 is classified as derelict and is currently used as a breakwater for Pier 12 where tugboats are stored. The tank farm is connected to Pier 12 via pipeline (exp, 2011). The northern portion of the Port is proposed to be expanded as part of the West Side Port Modernization Project, construction is set to begin in 2019 (PortSJ, 2017). A railway runs from the port along the eastern perimeter of the Lower West Side and to the west side of Saint John.
Partridge Island and the many urban parks (Market Place Park, Kings Square West, and Queen Square West) in the Lower West Side are natural assets that are valuable for recreation, culture, stormwater management, heat moderation, air purification, and carbon dioxide absorption. These assets should be prioritized as adaptation continues in the neighbourhood.
Areas at risk under a worst-case scenario: sea level rise 2100 1-100 (6.8m) (1 % possibility in 2100).
Central Peninsula: Damage to infrastructure, isolation of populations (safety, food security). 62 routes affected by flooding (approximately 9.2 km)
North End: Damage to infrastructure, isolation of populations (safety, food security). 30 routes affected by flooding (approximately 7.4 km)
Lower West: Damage to infrastructure, isolation of populations (safety, food security). 31 routes affected by flooding (approximately 4.6 km)
Central Peninsula: 180 properties affected including 30 industrial properties. Combined private property values of flooded areas equal $161,573,800.
North End: 65 properties affected including 18 industrial properties. Combined private property values of flooded areas equal $57,710,400.
Lower West: 196 properties affected including 8 industrial properties. Combined private property values of flooded areas equal $51,462,000.
Central Peninsula: 41 % of the total population live in impacted areas
North End: 46 % of the total population live in impacted areas
Lower West: 54 % of the total population live in impacted areas
Central Peninsula: 20 % of people in flood impact areas are low-income
North End: 17 % of people in flood impact areas are low-income
Lower West: 21 % of people in flood impact areas are low-income
Central Peninsula: Coastal Squeeze approximately 6.4 ha
North End: Coastal Squeeze approximately 1.9 ha
Lower West: Coastal Squeeze approximately 3.9 ha
Petroleum storage sites:
Central Peninsula: 39 contaminated sites at risk of flooding
North End: 8 contaminated sites at risk of flooding
Lower West: 3 contaminated sites at risk of flooding
Severe Weather Impacts in the Study Neighbourhoods.
Central Peninsula: High exposure due to topography and height of office towers/churches. As surveyed in 2017, approximately 462 trees were contacting overhead power lines and 297 trees were overhanging utility line that could result in future power outages.
North End: They are fairly sheltered by surrounding topography. Some areas along Douglas Avenue are more exposed and could see higher wind impacts. Urban forest inventory to be completed in 2019.
Lower West Side: Low lying area could have higher wind impacts due to coastal exposure. As surveyed in 2018, approximately 162 trees were contacting overhead power lines and 50 trees overhang utility lines that could result in future power outages.
Central Peninsula: Community gardens, Stephen Park, Rainbow Park, StreetHope, and Saint John High School could be negatively impacted.
North End: Community gardens, Shamrock Park and Victoria Street could be negatively impacted.
Lower West: Carleton Community Center garden could be negatively impacted.
Temperature extremes: vulnerable populations
Central Peninsula: Populations that could be negatively affected by extreme heat/cold include seniors (15 % above the age of 65) and low-income individuals (43 %).
North End: Populations that could be negatively affected by extreme heat/cold include seniors (16 % above the age of 65) and low-income individuals (39 %).
Lower West: Populations that could be negatively affected by extreme heat/cold include seniors (15 % above the age of 65) and low-income individuals (34 %).
Increased rainfall: inland flooding
Central Peninsula: Low lying areas in the northern portion of the peninsula and along Marsh Creek may be at risk (Haymarket Square, City Road, Rothesay Avenue).
North End: Low lying areas along the former path of Newman’s Brook may be at risk after heavy rainfall (Lansdowne Avenue, Shamrock Park).
Lower West: Low lying areas along the northern and eastern portions of the Lower-West Side may be at risk (Market Place, Port Facilities, residences).
Spring freshet: inland flooding
Central Peninsula: Areas along Marsh Creek (Rothesay Avenue, Crown Street) are at risk of riverine floods.
North End: Areas along the Wǝlastǝkw (Pokiok, Bridge Street) are at risk of riverine floods.
Lower West: Not at risk of riverine flooding.
Heat Island Effect:
Central Peninsula: Total green space is approximately 5 %. Urban heat island effect may be an issue due to a high number of dark surfaces.
North End: Total green space is approximately 21 %. Urban heat island effect could be an issue due in more developed portion of the North End to a high number of dark surfaces. An urban forest inventory has not been completed in this neighbourhood.
Lower West: Total green space is approximately 5 %. Urban heat island effect may be an issue due to a high number of dark surfaces.
Vibrant Communities (2008). A Poverty Outline for Saint John, New Brunswick
Port SJ (2017). 2017 Annual Report. Saint John Port Authority.